学生阶段

2011年中考英语复习十三:单项填空的考点讲解和训练

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【考点扫描】

  单项选择题一向是各省市中考的必考题型。它的特点是考点多,覆盖面广,题量大。其主要考查点是:

  1. 考查基本语法 ;

  2. 考查同义 、近义词的辨析;

  3. 考查各种词汇 的惯用法和固定搭配;

  4. 考查掌握和运用日常交际用语的能力。

  【名师解难】

  由于单项选择题所考查的范围较广,所以要想做好此类题一要具备扎实的英语基础知识,二要紧扣语境,抓住关键词。具体应注意以下几点:

  1. 复习时要弄清初中阶段所出现的几种主要时态和语态的用法、结构、与之

  连用的状语及各自的特殊用法。重点要分清现在完成时、一般过去时的用

  法。对宾语从句、状语从句、动词不定式、比较等级以及它们的用法规则

  都要一一弄清楚。还要注意固定搭配、习惯用语、动词的时态和语态、动

  词辨析以及不同词性的词的用法。

  2. 在解题方面要突出语境,在语境中选语句和词汇,防止汉语思维的干扰。

  英语中一些关键词的含义往往是由它所处的语义环境(即上下文)决定的,

  答题时如忽视了语境,就很容易答错题。

  3. 在解题时要注意句型 结构和语序。要掌握初中阶段所出现的句型结构,注

  意宾语从句、感叹句的语序。

  4. 掌握习语和日常交际用语。应掌握大纲词汇、习惯用语。由于文化背景和

  风俗习惯的不同,对于一些日常交际用语应记牢。

  从近几年来全国各地的中考试卷分析可以看出,单项选择题的考点主要分布在:名词、动词、形容词、副词、代词、冠词、连词、介词、情态动词;时态、语态;词义辨析、语序、各种不同的从句及交际用语上。

  在做单项选择题时,同学们除应具有较扎实的语言基础知识和善于思考外,掌握一些解题方法是很有必要的。

  由于单项选择覆盖面广,其解题思路也多种多样。下面我们举例谈谈一些常用的解题方法。

  1. 直接法:

  即直接利用相关语法知识,通过题干中的已供信息,捕捉到解题线索,从而得出正确答案的解题方法,例如:

  --- Will you come to the net bars(网吧)with me?

  --- Sorry. My mother always tells me ___________there.

  A. not go B. go C. not to go D. to go

  根据句意可知此题考查动词不定式的否定形式,即tell sb. not to do sth.,故此题应选C。

  2. 关键词法

  许多题目中都有这样一些词,它们对于快速而准确地判定答案起着至关重要的作用。我们称这些词为关键词(key words)。找到句中的关键词,也就找到了解题的突破口,例如:

  He hardly hurt himself in the accident, _______________?

  A. doesn"t he B. didn"t he C. did he D. does he

  该题中hardly与hurt是起关键词作用的。凡陈述部分含有hardly, never, little, few等否定意义的词时,反意疑问句用肯定形式;而hurt一词的过去式与原形相同,此处hurt未加s,应为过去式。因此本题答案C是正确的。

  --- What did you see, Mary?

  --- I saw a lot of trees on_______________of the lake.

  A. either side B. all sides C. both sides D. other side

  在平时练习中,我们接触的多是下列表达:on both sides of the road / street / river。但本题中lake无两边之分,只能是在四周。所以正确答案是B。本题中lake一词成为关键词。

  3. 类推法

  如果对题目的备选答案没有十分把握或把握很小,不妨利用如果A对,那么B也对的类推法,从而可将A、B予以否定,例如:

  --- Who"s the man at the door?

  --- ___________________________.

  A. He is a doctor B. He is a friend of mine

  C. He is a famous singer D. He is twenty

  仔细分析备选答案就可发现:A、C选项针对的是职业。若A是对的,那么C也会是对的。D回答的是年龄。故惟有B才是正确的。

  4. 前后照应法

  此方法多用于两个以上句子或对话形式命题的题目。解题前,透彻理解,然后联系上下文,捕捉隐含信息,方能准确找出答案,例如:

  --- He isn"t a teacher, is he?

  --- __________________. He works in a hospital.

  A. Yes, he is B. No, he isn"t C. Yes, He isn"t D. No, he is

  本题考查否定句的反意疑问句的回答。由后半句的回答,我们知道他的身份不是教师;否定反意疑问句回答中的Yes其实际含义为不,No的实际含义为是。因此应选择的是B。再如:

  --- It"s dangerous to play here.

  --- All right. Let"s go and find a _______________place.

  A. quiet B. safe C. bright D. dark

  联系上下文即可弄清语境:既然在这里玩危险,那么就找个安全的地方。此题应选B。

  5. 排除法

  根据题干提供的信息,先把一眼就看出的干扰项排除,缩小选择范围,然后将剩余的选项填入空白处进行检验,辨别真伪,例如:

  The girl asked the teacher _______________.

  A. what does the museum looks like B. what did the museum look like

  C. what the museum looks like D. what the museum looked like

  本题主要考查宾语从句中的语序及时态的对应关系。主句动词是过去时,从句的谓语动词也应是过去时的某种时态,故A、C被排除。而B中有词序错误,所以D为正确答案。

  6. 交际法

  此方法可用30个交际用语,联系上下文直接解题,例如:

  --- Would you like to have another cup of tea?

  --- _______________________________.

  A. Yes, I do B. Not al all C. No, thanks D. Help yourself

  本题主要考查简答交际用语的应答。对别人的邀请,如果表示不接受时,应委婉说出,不能断然拒绝。因此,选C是最佳答案。

  以上六种方法,大家要在具备扎实的基础知识条件下,灵活运用。同时,我们还要提醒大家注意以下几点:

  (1)不要受母语思维习惯的影响。学习外语常常会受母语习惯的影响。因此解题时也常会受母语思维模式的影响,例如:

  --- __________________is the capital of America?

  --- Washington.

  A. Where B. What C. In where D. In which

  汉语中常可这样发问美国的首都是哪儿?所以有人会选A,但英语中where是副词,表示地点。本句是问美国首都是哪个城市,所以正确的选择是B。再如:

  ___________it"s difficult to learn English well, __________you should never drop it.

  A. Though; but B. Though;

  C. Because; so D. Because;

  汉语中有关联词虽然但是、因为所以,但在英语中though与but, because和so是不可搭配使用的。由题意可知只有B是正确答案。

  (2)防止定势思维。有些固定搭配或习惯表达法大家掌握较牢靠,但也正是由于受到这些习惯表达的影响,犯一些思维定势的错误,例如:

  I won"t come back _______________August 5 and 7.

  A. until B. both C. between D. for

  受notuntil这一固定搭配的影响,很多人会选A。但若仔细审题,则答案应选C。因为回来这一动作不能同时发生在两个不同的日期。再如:

  Canada is larger than _____________country in Asia(亚洲).

  A. any other B. other C. any D. all others

  比较级 any other 单数名词是一种典型的比较级结构。所以有人会选A。但Canada是美洲国家,和亚洲国家相比不存在与自身相比较的问题。所以不可用other排除自身。正确的答案选C。

  (3)防止鱼目混珠。有些词由于词性、词义不同,它的用法也不同,应注意辨别,例如:

  --- Do you know if he ________________to play basketball with us?

  --- I think he will come if he ________________free tomorrow.

  A. comes; is B. comes; will be

  C. will come; is D. will come; will he

  若不注意审题,很容易误选A。但若仔细分析,就会发现前者if作是否解,而后者意为如果。二者分别引导宾语从句和条件状语从句。英语中,只有在时间、条件状语从句时,从句中用一般现在时代替将来时,在其他从句中无此用法。所以C是正确答案。再如:

  He made faces _____________the baby _____________crying.

  A. to make; stop B. make; stop C. make; to stop D. to make; to stop

  题中两个make用法不同。make faces意为做鬼脸,后接动词不定式作目的状语;后一个make意为使得,是一个使役动词,其后接动词原形作宾补,即make sb. do sth. 所以此题应选A。

  【中考范例】

  (2004年陕西省中考试题

  21. ---Have you ever heard from your aunt since she went to Hong Kong?

  ---Yes, Ive just got a letter from __________.

  A. her B. hers C. she D. herself

  【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是代词用法。这个句子的基本结构时get a letter

  from sb.因为from是个介词,后面所跟代词应用人称代词的宾格her。

  22. Im reading now. Please tell him _______ the TV a bit.

  A. turn up B. turn off C. to turn down D. to turn on

  【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是短语动词辨析。题干所提供的语境是我正在看书,因此应告诉他把电视拧小一些。所以应选turn down。

  23. Im sure you know the difference _________ look for and find.

  A. from B. for C. to D. between

  【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是介词的用法。题干的意思是我确信你知道look for和find两者之间地区别。两者之间的只能用between来

  表示。

  24. There ________ a football match on TV this evening.

  A. will have B. is going to be C. has D. is going to have

  【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词have和句型there be的区别。

  A, C, D都是句型there be 和动词have的混合,都是错误的。只有B一个选项正确。

  25. A talk on science _______ in our school next Monday.

  A. will give B. will be given C. has given D. has been given

  【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词时态和语态。时间状语是next Monday,所以动词应用一般将来时,因此应排除C和D。而主语是动作的承受者,所以应用被动语态。只有选项B正确。

  26. Since China has been a member of WTO, English is ________ useful than before.

  A. more B. most C. much D. very

  【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是形容词的比较级。在句末有than before字样,表明要用形容词的比较级,而useful的比较级是more useful, 所以应选more。

  27. It _______ Yang Liwei about 21 hours _______ the earth 14 times in his spaceship.

  A. spent, circling B. took, travelling

  C. spent, to travel D. took, to circle

  【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词的用法。本句子的结构是It took sb. some time to do sth. 只有D能用在这一结构中。

  28. The students are sorry to hear that the famous singer _______ for half an hour.

  A. has left B. has gone C. has been away D. has gone away

  【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是延续性动词和非延续性动词的用法。因为本句中的时间状语是for half an hour,表示的是一段时间,所以应和延续性动词连用。四个选项中只有has been away能表示延续性的动作。

  29. I am waiting for my friend. _________, I will go swimming alone.

  A. If he doesnt come B. If he wont come

  C. If he will come D. If he is coming

  【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是在时间状语从句里的时态。在时间状语从句里,通常用一般现在是代替一般将来时。

  30. ---Could you tell me _______?

  ---Sorry, I dont know. I was not at the meeting.

  A. what does he say at the meeting B. what did he say at the meeting

  C. what he says at the meeting D. what he said at the meeting

  【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是宾语从语的语序和时态。第一,宾语从句应用陈述句的语序;第二,表示在会上所说的话应用一般过去时。

  【满分演练】

  单项天空

  1. Ann is so careful that she always goes over her exercises to _______________there are no mistakes.

  A. look for B. make sure C. find out D. think about

  2. --- Which of the two English dictionaries will you buy?

  --- I"ll buy _________ of them, so I can give one to my friend, Hellen.

  A. either B. neither C. all D. both

  3. He __________ two thousand trees since 1985.

  A. plants B. planted C. will plant D. has planted

  4. ___________ you free last night?

  A. Were B. Was C. Are D. Do

  5. --- Dad, when will you be free? You agreed to go to the seaside with me four days ago.

  --- I am sorry, Jean. But I think I will have a _____________holiday soon.

  A. four-days B. four-day C. four days D. four day

  6. In the bookshop, a reader asked the shopkeeper ____________Who Moved My Cheese was an interesting book.

  A. that B. how C. what D. if

  7. ___________comes from cows.

  A. Wool B. Chicken C. Pork D. Milk

  8. Which of the following does paper burn in?

  A. CO2 B. N2 C. O2 D. He

  9. Today, the forests have almost gone. People must ___________down too many trees.

  A. stop to cut B. stop from cutting

  C. be stopped to cut D. be stopped from cutting

  10. --- You must come back every month.

  --- Yes, I __________________.

  A. will B. must C. should D. can

  11. The doctor did what he could _________________that child.

  A. save B. to save C. saved D. saving

  12. --- Can you guess if they _____________to play basketball with us?

  --- I think they"ll come if they _______________tree.

  A. come; are B. will come; will be

  C. will come; are D. come; will be

  13. I will tell you how to get to the place; you"d better _____________it __________.

  A. try; on B. get; off C. take; down D. pick; up

  14. --- Ann has gone to Shanghai.

  --- So _____________her parents.

  A. do B. had C. did D. have

  15. --- How long can I ______________these books?

  ---Two weeks.

  A. borrow B. lend C. keep D. buy

  16. It takes us _________hour or more to go to my hometown by ________train.

  A. an; a B. a; an C. an; 不填 D. a; 不填

  17. Lucy tried her best to find a good job in the city, but she had no _________.

  A. trouble B. idea C. luck D. time

  18. There are three _______________students in the school.

  A. thousands B. thousands of C. thousand of D. thousand

  19. I have to speak to my grandpa loudly because there"s ___________with his ears.

  A. wrong something B. something wrong

  C. anything wrong D. nothing wrong

  20.--- I"ve had enough bread. Would you like_____________?

  --- No thanks.

  A. a few more B. one more C. another more D. some more

  21. I"m old enough to wash _________clothes by myself. You can just wash ______.

  A. my, your B. mine, yours C. my, yours D. your, my

  22. The father wished the twins to be doctors, but __________of them liked to study medicine.

  A. both B. neither C. either D. none

  23. Now Helen works ______________than before.

  A. more carefully B. more careful C. much careful D. much carefully

  24. We are doing much better __________English ________our teacher"s help.

  A. in, at B. at, in C. in, with D. with, with

  25. If you like the chicken, you may have as_____________as you can.

  A. much B. many C. more D. little

  26. --- Mum, Bill is coming to dinner this evening.

  --- OK. Let"s give him _____________to eat.

  A. something different B. different anything

  C. anything different D. different something

  27. The letter is ___________in French. I cannot read it.

  A. writing B. written C. wrote D. writes

  28. --- Your spoken English is much better.

  --- Thank you. My teacher often asks us ___________English as __________as possible.

  A. to speak, many B. not to speak, much

  C. to speak, much D. not to speak, more

  29. It"s getting dark. Please ______________the light.

  A. turn off B. turn on C. turn down D. turn up

  30. Martin is good at fishing, ________________?

  A. is he B. does he C. isn"t he D. doesn"t he

  31. -- Do you know him well?

  --- Sure. We _____________friends since ten years ago.

  A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

  32. Cars and buses ___________stop when the traffic lights turn red.

  A. can B. need C. may D. must

  33. John fell asleep _____________he was listening to the music.

  A. after B. before C. while D. as soon as

  34. --- May I speak to John?

  --- Sorry, he ____________Japan. But he _________in two days.

  A. has been to, will come back B. has gone to, will be back

  C. has been in, would come back D. has gone to, won"t cone back

  35. --- Do you know __________________?

  --- They moved here soon after their son was born.

  A. when would the Greens move here B. when the Greens moved here

  C. the Greens would move here D. when the Greens would move here

  36. Your bedroom is very big, but ___________is rather small.

  A. she B. Jane C. her D. hers

  37. _____________book on the desk is___________ useful one.

  A.The; an B.A; a C.The; a D.The; /

  38. --- When was our Party founded?

  --- It was founded _________________.

  A.on October 1,1949 B.in May, 1922

  C.on July 1,1921 D.in August, 1927

  39. This maths problem is____________ and I can do it_____________ .

  A.easy; easily B.easily; easily C.easy; easy D.easily; easy

  40. --- They are thirsty. Will you please give them_____________ ?

  --- Certainly.

  A.some bottles of waters B.some bottles of water

  C.some bottle of water D.some bottle of waters

  41. There is still a little orange here, but_____________ people want to drink it.

  A.little B.a little C.few D.a few

  42. Mr. Yu gave some new words to Lucy and asked her to_____________ on the blackboard.

  A.write it down B.write them down

  C.write down it D.write down them

  43. --- Must I finish my homework now?

  --- No, you__________ .You may have a rest first.

  A.mustn"t B.can"t C.may not D.needn"t

  44. --- When did you go to bed last night?

  --- I didn"t go bed ____________my father got home.

  A.until B.while C.after D.when

  45. --- Does you sister remember to return the library book today?

  --- Oh, yes. Thank you. She"s_______________ it for two weeks.

  A.kept B.had C.borrowed D.keeping

  46. The teacher told Xiao Ming_______________ late for school again.

  A.not to be B.not be C.don"t be D.not to

  47. Could you tell me__________________ ?

  A.where does Li Lei work B.where did Li Lei work

  C.where Li Lei works D.where Li Lei worked

  48. --- Jone could swim when she was only four years old.

  --- ______________clever the girl was!

  A.How B.What a C.What D.How a

  49. --- Where"s Tom now?

  --- He________________ the post office.

  A.has been to B.has gone to C.went to D.goes to

  50. --- Hi, Kate. We"re going to help Grandma Li with her housework this Saturday afternoon.

  --- _________________________.

  A.So I am B.So do I C.So I do D.So am I

  【练习答案】

  1.B 2.D 3.D 4.A 5.B 6.D 7.D 8.C 9.D 10.A 11.B 12.C 13.C 14.D 15.C 16.C 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.D 21.C 22.B 23.A 24.C 25.B 26.A 27.B 28.C 29.B 30.C 31.B 32.D 33. C 34.B35.A 36.D 37.C 38.C 39.A 40.B 41.C 42.B 43.D 44.A 45.A 46.A 47.C 48.A 49.B 50.D

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