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2010年高考备考难点之定语从句解题的黄金规律

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在复合句中修饰名 或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。引导定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, that等和关系副词where, when ,why等。关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成分。

  案例探究
  1.The film brought the hours back to me________I was taken good care of in that far-away village.
  A.until B.that C.when D.where(NMET2001)
  命题意图:考查学生对定语从句的掌握,属于五星级题目。
  知识依托:先行词是表示时间的词,从句中缺少状语,通常用关系副词when。
  错解分析:本题有一定难度,主要是由于在先行词和定语从句之间有其他的词。
  解题方法与技巧:首先要找准先行词,先行词hours表示的是时间,当先行词是表示时间的词时,可能有2种情况:如果从句中缺少状语,通常用关系副词when,如题;如果在从句中缺少主语或宾语,通常用关系代词that或which。
  答案:C

  2.________is known to everybody,the moon travels round the earth once every month.
  A.It B.As C.That D.What(NMET2001)
  命题意图:考查学生对定语从句中关系代词as的用法。属于五星级题目。
  知识依托:as引导非限制性定语从句。
  错解分析:A项迷惑性较大。但it是形式主语,后应用that从句作真正主语。如:It"s known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month.
  解题方法与技巧:根据题干的逗号可以判断,空缺处应填关系代词as,引导非限制性定语从句。在这种用法中,as的意思是正像像那样,定语从句则表达了说话人的对某事的态度和看法。
  答案:B

  锦囊妙计
  1.由who, whom, whose引导的定语从句:这类定语从句中, who用作主语,whom用作宾语,whose用作定语。例如:
  This is the man who helped me.
  The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room.
  Do you know the man whose name is Wang Yu?

  2.which引导的定语从句:which在从句中作主语或谓语动词和介词的宾语。例如:
  This is the book which you want.
  The building which stands near the river is our school.
  The room in which there is a machine is a workshop.

  3.由that引导的定语从句:that在定语从句中可以指人或物,在从句中作主语、谓语动词或介词的宾语。(但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语)例如:
  The letter that I received was from my father.
  注意在下面几种情况下必须用that而不用which引导定语从句:
  ①先行词是不定代词all,few,little,much,something,nothing,anything等。例如:All that we have to do is to practise every day.
  ②先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰。例如:The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten.This is the best film I"ve ever seen.
  ③先行词被all,any,every,each,few,little,no,some等修饰。例如:I have read all the books(that)you gave me.
  ④先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last修饰时,例如:He is the only person that/(who) I want to talk to .
  ⑤先行词既有人又有物时,例如:They talked of things and persons that they remembered.
  ⑥当句中已有who时,为避免重复。例如:Who is the man that is talking to John?
  ⑦用作关系代词,修饰表示时间的名词如day,time,moment等,代替when。例如:It happened on the day that/when I was born.
  ⑧如有两个定语从句,其中一个关系词已用,则另一个用that。例如:Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.

  4.由when,where,why引导的定语从句。例如:
  I know the reason why he came late.
  This is the place where we lived for 5 years.
  I will never forget the day when I met Mr Liu.
  注意:先行词是表示地点或时间时,有时用where或when,有时用that(which)引导定语从句,这时要根据从句的谓语动词是及物的还是不及物的。如果是及物的就用that(which),否则用where或when。例如:
  This is the house where he lived last year.
  This is the house that(which)he visited last year.
  I thought of the happy days when I stayed in Beijing.
  I have never forgotten the day which we spent together.

  5.限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句:
  ①限定性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开,引导非限定性定语从句的关系代词有who,whom,whose,which,of which等,这些关系代词都不能省略;
  ②非限定性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明,没有这种从句不影响主句意思的完整,一般用逗号把主句和从句分开。关系代词用which,不用that;指人时可用who,例如:
  I have two sisters,who are both students.
  Crusoe"s dog,which was now very old,became ill and died.

  6.as引导的定语从句:
  ①as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限定性定语从句,并在从句中作主语、表语或状语,构成the sameas,suchas等结构。例如:
  I like the same book as you do.(as作宾语)
  I shall do it in the same way as you did.(as作状语)
  I want to have such a dictionary as he has.(as作宾语);
  ②as引导非限定性定语从句。as在定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,这个定语从句说明整个句子,可以放在主句之前。例如:
  As we all know,he studies very hard.(as代表整个句子,作宾语)
  As is known to all,he is the best student in our class.(as代表整个句子,作主语)
  常用的这种类似插入语的句式有as is said above,as is already mentioned above,as is known to all,as it is,as is often the case,as is reported in the newspaper等。
  注意:①关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致;②关系代词whom,which,that在限定性定语从句作动词宾语或介词宾语,而该介词又位于从句末尾时,经常省略,但as一般不省略;③关系代词which和as在定语从句中的区别是:which不能放在句首,而as则可以;在句中时,as有正如就像之意,而which则没有此意。

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